Pub. online:1 Jan 2019Type:Research ArticleOpen Access
Volume 30, Issue 2 (2019), pp. 349–365
The isometric mapping (Isomap) algorithm is often used for analysing hyperspectral images. Isomap allows to reduce such hyperspectral images from a high-dimensional space into a lower-dimensional space, keeping the critical original information. To achieve such objective, Isomap uses the state-of-the-art MultiDimensional Scaling method (MDS) for dimensionality reduction. In this work, we propose to use Isomap with SMACOF, since SMACOF is the most accurate MDS method. A deep comparison, in terms of accuracy, between Isomap based on an eigen-decomposition process and Isomap based on SMACOF has been carried out using three benchmark hyperspectral images. Moreover, for the hyperspectral image classification, three classifiers (support vector machine, k-nearest neighbour, and Random Forest) have been used to compare both Isomap approaches. The experimental investigation has shown that better classification accuracy is obtained by Isomap with SMACOF.
Pub. online:1 Jan 2009Type:Research ArticleOpen Access
Volume 20, Issue 2 (2009), pp. 235–254
Most of real-life data are not often truly high-dimensional. The data points just lie on a low-dimensional manifold embedded in a high-dimensional space. Nonlinear manifold learning methods automatically discover the low-dimensional nonlinear manifold in a high-dimensional data space and then embed the data points into a low-dimensional embedding space, preserving the underlying structure in the data. In this paper, we have used the locally linear embedding method on purpose to unravel a manifold. In order to quantitatively estimate the topology preservation of a manifold after unfolding it in a low-dimensional space, some quantitative numerical measure must be used. There are lots of different measures of topology preservation. We have investigated three measures: Spearman's rho, Konig's measure (KM), and mean relative rank errors (MRRE). After investigating different manifolds, it turned out that only KM and MRRE gave proper results of manifold topology preservation in all the cases. The main reason is that Spearman's rho considers distances between all the pairs of points from the analysed data set, while KM and MRRE evaluate a limited number of neighbours of each point from the analysed data set.