Pub. online:14 Jun 2022Type:Research ArticleOpen Access
Volume 33, Issue 2 (2022), pp. 299–320
Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a widely used technique for mapping data from a high-dimensional to a lower-dimensional space and for visualizing data. Recently, a new method, known as Geometric MDS, has been developed to minimize the MDS stress function by an iterative procedure, where coordinates of a particular point of the projected space are moved to the new position defined analytically. Such a change in position is easily interpreted geometrically. Moreover, the coordinates of points of the projected space may be recalculated simultaneously, i.e. in parallel, independently of each other. This paper has several objectives. Two implementations of Geometric MDS are suggested and analysed experimentally. The parallel implementation of Geometric MDS is developed for multithreaded multi-core processors. The sequential implementation is optimized for computational speed, enabling it to solve large data problems. It is compared with the SMACOF version of MDS. Python codes for both Geometric MDS and SMACOF are presented to highlight the differences between the two implementations. The comparison was carried out on several aspects: the comparative performance of Geometric MDS and SMACOF depending on the projection dimension, data size and computation time. Geometric MDS usually finds lower stress when the dimensionality of the projected space is smaller.
Pub. online:9 Nov 2020Type:Research ArticleOpen Access
Volume 31, Issue 4 (2020), pp. 659–680
In this paper, we continue the study of efficient algorithms for the computation of zeta functions on the complex plane, extending works of Coffey, Šleževičienė and Vepštas. We prove a central limit theorem for the coefficients of the series with binomial-like coefficients used for evaluation of the Riemann zeta function and establish the rate of convergence to the limiting distribution. An asymptotic expression is derived for the coefficients of the series. We discuss the computational complexity and numerical aspects of the implementation of the algorithm. In the last part of the paper we present our results on 3D visualizations of zeta functions, based on series with binomial-like coefficients. 3D visualizations illustrate underlying structures of surfaces and 3D curves associated with zeta functions.