Pub. online:1 Jan 2019Type:Research ArticleOpen Access
Volume 30, Issue 1 (2019), pp. 117–134
This paper introduces two novel algorithms for the 2-bit adaptive delta modulation, namely 2-bit hybrid adaptive delta modulation and 2-bit optimal adaptive delta modulation. In 2-bit hybrid adaptive delta modulation, the adaptation is performed both at the frame level and the sample level, where the estimated variance is used to determine the initial quantization step size. In the latter algorithm, the estimated variance is used to scale the quantizer codebook optimally designed assuming Laplace distribution of the input signal. The algorithms are tested using speech signal and compared to constant factor delta modulation, continuously variable slope delta modulation and instantaneously adaptive 2-bit delta modulation, showing that the proposed algorithms offer higher performance and significantly wider dynamic range.
Pub. online:1 Jan 2008Type:Research ArticleOpen Access
Volume 19, Issue 2 (2008), pp. 255–270
In this paper a detail analysis of speech coding algorithm based on forward adaptive technique is carried out. We consider an algorithm that works on frame-by-frame basis, where a frame consists of a certain number of speech samples. Buffering frame-by-frame an estimation of the gain defined as squared root of the frame variance is enabled. The information about the gain (side information) and the code book of a nonadaptive quantizer, which is designed for the unit variance case of the input signal, are further used when designing an adaptive quantizer. In such a way better quantizer adaptation to the varying input statistics is provided. Observe that the goal of this paper is to investigate the preference that for the wide range of variance change could be achieved when implementing in the forward adaptive speech coding algorithm, the recently developed effective method for the Lloyd–Max's algorithm initialization, which provides optimal Lloyd–Max's quantizer performances for the unit variance case of the input signal. We destine to consider the speech coding algorithm based on forward adaptive technique since the backward adaptation provides SQNR (signal to quantization noise ratio) within 1 dB of the forward adaptation. We provide theoretical and experimental results (performances of our algorithm) which are compared with the optimal results. Additionally, we discuss the performances of speech coding schemes designed according to G. 711 standard and we point out the benefits that can be achieved by using our algorithm. Finally, in order to find better solution for implementation of the proposed algorithm in practice we consider the performances of our algorithm when log-uniform as well as uniform scalar quantizer are used for gain quantizing.
Pub. online:1 Jan 2007Type:Research ArticleOpen Access
Volume 18, Issue 2 (2007), pp. 279–288
In this paper an exact and complete analysis of the Lloyd–Max's algorithm and its initialization is carried out. An effective method for initialization of Lloyd–Max's algorithm of optimal scalar quantization for Laplacian source is proposed. The proposed method is very simple method of making an intelligent guess of the starting points for the iterative Lloyd–Max's algorithm. Namely, the initial values for the iterative Lloyd–Max's algorithm can be determined by the values of compandor's parameters. It is demonstrated that by following that logic the proposed method provides a rapid convergence of the Lloyd–Max's algorithm.