Volume 25, Issue 1 (2014), pp. 113–137
This paper presents an adaptive image-watermarking technique based on just-noticeable distortion (JND) profile and fuzzy inference system (FIS) optimized with genetic algorithm (GA). Here it is referred to as the AIWJFG technique. During watermark embedding, it embeds a watermark into an image by referring the JND profile of the image so as to make the watermark more imperceptible. It employs image features and local statistics in the construction of an FIS, and then exploits the FIS to extract watermarks without original images. In addition, the FIS can be further optimized by a GA to improve its watermark-extraction performance remarkably. Experimental results demonstrate that the AIWJFG technique not only makes the embedded watermarks further imperceptible but also possesses adaptive and robust capabilities to resist on image-manipulation attacks being considered in the paper.