In this work, we perform an extensive theoretical and experimental analysis of the characteristics of five of the most prominent algebraic modelling languages (AMPL, AIMMS, GAMS, JuMP, and Pyomo) and modelling systems supporting them. In our theoretical comparison, we evaluate how the reviewed modern algebraic modelling languages match the current requirements. In the experimental analysis, we use a purpose-built test model library to perform extensive benchmarks. We provide insights on which algebraic modelling languages performed the best and the features that we deem essential in the current mathematical optimization landscape. Finally, we highlight possible future research directions for this work.