Pub. online:6 Dec 2022Type:Research ArticleOpen Access
Volume 33, Issue 4 (2022), pp. 795–832
Intonation is a complex suprasegmental phenomenon essential for speech processing. However, it is still largely understudied, especially in the case of under-resourced languages, such as Lithuanian. The current paper focuses on intonation in Lithuanian, a Baltic pitch-accent language with free stress and tonal variations on accented heavy syllables. Due to historical circumstances, the description and analysis of Lithuanian intonation were carried out within different theoretical frameworks and in several languages, which makes them hardly accessible to the international research community. This paper is the first attempt to gather research on Lithuanian intonation from both the Lithuanian and the Western traditions, the structuralist and generativist points of view, and the linguistic and modelling perspectives. The paper identifies issues in existing research that require special attention and proposes directions for future investigations both in linguistics and modelling.
Pub. online:1 Jan 2018Type:Research ArticleOpen Access
Volume 29, Issue 1 (2018), pp. 75–90
The recent introduction of whole-slide scanning systems enabled accumulation of high-quality pathology images into large collections, thus opening new perspectives in cancer research, as well as new analysis challenges. Automated identification of tumour tissue in the whole-slide image enables further use of developed grading systems that classify tumour cell abnormalities and predict tumour developments. In this article, we describe several possibilities to achieve epithelium-stroma classification of tumour tissues in digital pathology images by employing annotated superpixels to train machine learning algorithms. We emphasize that annotating superpixels rather than manually outlining tissue classes in raw images is less time consuming, and more effective way of producing ground truth for computational pathology pipelines. In our approach feature space for supervised learning is created from tissue class assigned superpixels by extracting colour and texture parameters, and applying dimensionality reduction methods. Alternatively, to train convolutional neural network, labelled superpixels are used to generate square image patches by moving fixed size window around each superpixel centroid. The proposed method simplifies the process of ground truth data collection and should minimize the time spent by a skilled expert to perform manual annotation of whole-slide images. We evaluate our method on a private data set of colorectal cancer images. Obtained results confirm that a method produces accurate reference data suitable for the use of different machine learning based classification algorithms.