Pub. online:1 Jan 2010Type:Research ArticleOpen Access
Volume 21, Issue 4 (2010), pp. 575–596
This paper presents GSM speech coder indirect identification algorithm based on sending novel identification pilot signals through the GSM speech channel. Each GSM subsystem disturbs identification pilot, while speech coder uniquely changes the tempo-spectral characteristics of the proposed pilot signal. Speech coder identification algorithm identifies speech coder with the usage of robust linear frequency cepstral coefficient (LFCC) feature extraction procedure and fast artificial neural networks. First step of speech coder identification algorithm is the exact position detection of the identification pilot signal using normalized cross correlation approach. Next stage is time-domain windowing of the input signal to convolve each frame of the input speech signal and window spectrum. Consecutive step is a short-time Fast Fourier Transformation to produce the magnitude spectrum of each windowed frame. Further, a noise reduction with spectral subtraction based on spectral smoothing is carried out. In last steps we perform the frequency filtering and Discrete Cosine Transformation to receive 24 uncorrelated cepstral coefficients per frame as a result. Speech coder identification is completed with fast artificial neural network classification using the input feature vector of 24 LFCC coefficients, giving a result of identified speech coder. For GSM speech coder indirect identification evaluation, the standardized GSM ETSI bit-exact implementations were used. Furthermore, a set of custom tools was build. These tools were used to simulate and control various conditions in the GSM system. Final results show that proposed algorithm identifies the GSM-EFR speech coder with the accuracy of 98.85%, the GSM-FR speech coder with 98.71%, and the GSM-HR coder with 98.61%. These scores were achieved at various types of surrounding noises and even at very low SNR conditions.
Pub. online:1 Jan 2009Type:Research ArticleOpen Access
Volume 20, Issue 1 (2009), pp. 51–78
This paper presents a novel data modulation scheme PCCD-OFDM-ASK: the phase continuous context dependent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing amplitude shift keying. The proposed modulation is successfully applied in the mobile payment system. It is used to transmit the digital data over the speech channel of the mobile communication system GSM, as well as CDMA. The main key points of the proposed modulation schemes are: precise signal synchronization between the modulator and demodulator, signal energy independent operation, on line adaptation of frequency characteristics of the transmission channel, and controlled frequency bandwidth thus enabling non-overlapped full duplex communication over the GSM's voice channel.